When white supremacists overthrew a government

When white supremacists overthrew a government

For a long time, if you went to the library
in Wilmington, North Carolina, there was one thing you weren’t allowed to research. “We were refused. We were rejected by the librarian.” “When I asked about or inquired about 1898
they wanted to know why.” “I was told that yes they had something
but they kept it under lock and key.” The story of Wilmington in 1898 still isn’t
widely known. “What happened here — on what’s now
just this empty patch of grass would radically change racial politics in North Carolina. This is the story of an American election, but
also of something we don’t usually find in American history. The violent overthrow of a democratically
elected government. In the late 1800s, Wilmington, North Carolina
was the state’s largest city. It had a majority black population, and historians
today describe it as a rarity in the post-Civil War American South. “Wilmington prior to November, 1898, was
what the New South could be at the cusp of the 20th century.” “There was an unusual degree of black prosperity.” In Wilmington there were successful black
entrepreneurs, doctors, teachers — but also black elected officials. And for a time, that was true throughout the
State. Take a look at the politicians on this poster
of the 1889 North Carolina House of Representatives. Here at the bottom — are black Republican
representatives — some from Wilmington. North Carolina also sent four black Republicans
to the US Congress between 1875 and 1899. The Democratic and Republican parties of 1898
in many ways occupied opposite parts of the political spectrum than they do today. “Most African-Americans were voting for
the Republican Party. And the Democratic Party was white voters
almost exclusively. White supremacy was the central focus of the
platform for the Democratic Party.” Republicans in North Carolina were successful
in part because of a 3rd party called the “Populist” party, made up of mostly white
farmers fed up with the tough economic times. North Carolina Populists joined up with Republicans
to form what they called the Fusion Party. And in the elections of 1894 and 1896, the
Fusion party defeated the Democrats in sweeping victories statewide. That meant North Carolina now had a government
that shared power between black and white politicians, including a newly elected Republican
governor. Together, they moved towards reforms that
would favor black Americans and working-class whites. “This was something that the Democratic
Party folks were simply not going to accept.” A multiracial government wasn’t just a disappointment
for Democrats. It was more like a humiliation. They needed a plan to take back control of
the state in the next election. So party leaders, like Furnifold Simmons,
future US Senator; Charles Aycock, future North Carolina Governor; and this man, Alfred
Moore Wadell, came up with one: To beat the Fusion Party by luring white Populist
voters away from their alliance with Black voters. Wilmington, with a large black population
and a local Fusion government in power — would be a focus of their campaign. The state Democratic state party handbook
for 1898 laid out their goal: consolidate the white vote by stoking white anger and
resentment. It said: “this is a white man’s country
and white men must control and govern it.” Their most effective tool was the media. One of North Carolina’s biggest newspapers
was a Democratic Party mouthpiece. It ran racist political cartoons throughout
1898. “Not everybody was literate in 1898. But to see a political cartoon of the type
that  ran you may not be able to read it but you know exactly what it means.” Many of the cartoons were centered on the
threat of “Negro domination”…even though the Fusion government was mostly white. They also played up another fear. “Black men threatening white women became
a theme. White men need to do all that they can to
protect white womanhood.” This was all part of North Carolina democratic
strategy, but it echoed the national racist rhetoric of the time. In one speech that Democrats printed in a
Wilmington paper — a prominent Georgia writer named Rebecca Felton said: “If it takes lynching a black man a day
to protect white womanhood ‘I say lynch”. Her speech prompted a Wilmington black man
named Alex Manly, owner of the black-run, Daily Record newspaper, to respond with
a column. He made a simple observation, that at the
time, was shocking. “That white women who had liaisons with
black men did so voluntarily and enthusiastically.” Manly wrote “Every Negro lynched is called
a “big burly, black brute”, when in fact many were sufficiently attractive for white
girls to fall in love with them.” “Manly pretty much said in a nutshell: sometimes
white women choose to be with black men.” Manly’s editorial became another tool for
Democrats. Newspapers reprinted it, called it “A Horrid
Slander”, and ran comments about it on a daily basis. It was just a few months before the election,
and white voters were angry. “By the time the election rolls around on
November 8th black voters, Republican voters had been thoroughly intimidated here.” By all accounts, the elections of 1898 were
a sham. The Democratic party had a paramilitary group
called the Red Shirts. They attacked and blocked black residents
from voting. At a rally just before the election, Alfred
Moore Waddell provoked the crowds. He said “negro office-holding ought at once,
and forever be brought to an end. Even if we have to choke the current of the
Cape Fear River with carcasses.” The votes were counted, and the Democrats
won. “Democratic candidates won every seat they
had a candidate up for election in.” But some local Fusionist politicians remained
in power, because their seats hadn’t been up for re-election like the white Republican
mayor and the board of aldermen. And and of course the election did nothing
to undo the economic power black folks held in the city. The Democrats had won the election, but their
goal of total white supremacist control remained out of reach. “And so they engineered what was essentially
a coup d’etat.” The day after the election, at a gathering
for white men in Wilmington, the Democrats unveiled a document they called the “White
Declaration of Independence.” It contained an ultimatum. Cynthia Brown, whose descendants were in Wilmington
back in 1898, is a historian at her church, where there’s a preserved copy of the declaration
from the next day’s newspaper. “We will no longer be ruled and will never
again be ruled by men of African origin.” They would strip black men of voting rights. They would give “white men a large part
of the employment heretofore given to” black men. And as for Alex Manly… “We demand that he leave this City forever
within twenty-four hours.” The next morning, hundreds of white men marched to the offices of the Daily Record. Manly was gone — he had fled to save his
own life. They set the Daily Record building on fire. This is where it once stood. “Once the White leadership destroyed Alex
Manly’s printing press they destroyed one way in which the African-American community
in Wilmington could organize itself and keep itself informed.” At City Hall — the mayor and board of aldermen
were forced out. “There’s two hundred armed men in City Hall
at the time. They didn’t do it of their own free will and
as they resigned a new member selected by the Democratic Party was voted into office.” Waddell — who once threatened to fill the
Cape Fear River with black bodies — was the new mayor of Wilmington. Meanwhile, the mob had grown to about 2,000
men, and the violence spilled into the streets. In these photos, exes mark where the first
black residents were killed. “The stories are that they were dumped into
the river. And there are varying stories about how many
people were killed.” “To me, I see 40 to 60 clearly as fatalities
as a result of the violence. But I think it was higher.” Many black residents hid for days in the swamps,
and the wooded cemeteries in the city — including Cynthia’s great grandmother. And thousands of other residents fled Wilmington,
never to return. Shortly afterward, democrats printed booklets
celebrating a glorious victory…and in the newspapers, depicted black residents as the
instigators. “This image is a gross misrepresentation
of what actually happened. You know what you see are black men with guns
not white men with machine guns.” The city never regained its black majority
population. Jim Crow laws, like literacy tests and poll
taxes that prevented black people from voting were immediately enacted and Wilmington’s
spirit of black opportunity was crushed. Black political representation in the state
was over. It would be 90 years until North Carolina
elected its next black Congress member. “Wilmington did a really great job of covering
up a very dark past for a very long time.” “Over the years, the textbooks on North
Carolina’s state history have struggled to accurately describe what happened in 1898. This book from 1933 calls what happened “unfortunate
for both races.” And this one from 1978 doesn’t have that
much more detail. But they both praise Charles Aycock, one of
the perpetrators of the riot, as a man with ‘a kind heart’ and that in fact he was
one of ‘the best friends that the colored people had in the state.’ It’s a legacy that North Carolina has yet
to fully undo. The names of the perpetrators are on Wilmington’s
school buildings and city parks. But the legacy is also bigger than those names. Turn on the news, and the state’s long history
of political suppression echoes. “We turn to a strict new voter ID law in
North Carolina.” “Racially gerrymandering and a push for
new voting maps.” “The court says the Republican-led legislature
redrew Congressional districts along racial lines, violating the Constitution.” “There is a tremendous amount of intimidation
that is still felt by the black community.” “It doesn’t have to be mass mayhem and violence
in the streets.” “The strategy shifts towards designing state
laws in such a way that you could exclude blacks from voter participation.” “The subliminal pursuit of continuing
the White declaration of independence.” “And if you don’t see it for what it really
is, it can happen all over again.”


  • Vox says:

    I'm so excited to share this series with you all! If you have an idea for a story that we should investigate for Missing Chapter, send it to us via this form! http://bit.ly/2RhjxMy

    And if you want some of our top tips for how associate producer Melissa Hirsch and I prep for field reported stories like this one, then check out our Video Lab extra coming Friday. You can sign up to join right here: http://bit.ly/vox-video-membership

    Cheers — Ranjani

  • otakonlover10 says:

    Just another reason to hate the mayonnaise people

  • Jon Lindsey says:

    When Trump says make America great again, this is what he wants for it.

  • boo boo says:

    Aw heck, the democratic party was the "white party" until 1945. Every democrat president before that, was a white supremacist. How much was Obama paid by the "white party"? They're coup-ing again.

  • Rachel Garber says:

    Yeah, I love how Condoleezza Rice thinks the Repugs of today are the same as the GOP of the past

  • Sharon Kipper says:

    The people that came up with politics where black men the very first president was a black man because black people are the ones that founded politics.

  • Sankara Garvey says:

    Trump being president is shedding light on the terrorist america black americans have always known about.

  • albusai says:

    Do a documentary on more recent events like the Tutsis grenocide by Hutus

  • albusai says:

    Too bad you guys lied, the flip of Democrats is wrong , Democrats has been the real reason of why blacks I still in the whole

  • Eduardo Contreras says:

    In Texas the representatives predominately white have done everything in their power to reconstruct voting districts so it will benefit the white voters. History DOES repeat itself!!!!!

  • RaRa pou nou tout says:

    Democracy In Chaos

  • Jimmy Rodas Molestina says:

    Knowledge is power ! History repeats it self !

  • Zandra Bey says:

    Great Video:Are We Black?Taj Tarik Bey VS Edward X Debate 2019((Look it up so-call black if I find out who's the true black man and woman are it's not the so-called black people is the hybrid the European colonizers immigrants squatters!!And Europeans colonizing immigrants squatters are not Americans here,, They are IMMIGRANTS!!! Great Video:Dr Nailah Inanna EL& Grand Sheik-Taj Tarik Bey Discuss Various Topics))((Great Video: Reparations with Truth Walker and Grand Sheik-Taj Tarik Bey))

  • Zandra Bey says:

    Great Video : Reparationswith Truth Walker and Grand Sheik-Taj Tarik Bey ((Look it up so-call black people

  • jerrae thomas says:

    5:36 ohhh the irony! Lol😏😏🍆

  • Rochelle Pratt says:

    Whites wanted my ancestors and soon as they noticed their intelligent they got scared and formed white supremacist's  cult

  • Yemaya Ra says:

    The paternal grandmother of my daughters has the maiden name of Harrelston. During the 17th century and the turn of the 18th they owned a vast parcel of land in NC. During the 1800’s they too were systematically terrorized and murdered for their land. Her great – great grandmother was one of a few that survived. Today that city is referred to as Charleston. Just one of 1,000’s of actual accounts of how we were divested of tens of millions of acres of farm land during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

  • See The Grey Areas says:

    Mrs. Felton article never said BLACK MAN she was speaking of all men, why lie vox?

  • SAVAGE KING says:

    Radical left Channel still got it

  • pinky donaldson says:

    Sound like Fox News today and how the republican party won the south in 1968 and in 1980.

  • pinky donaldson says:

    Reparations now reparations forever, the devils.

  • Karl Ascuasiati says:

    Sad thing about this… a lot of my black friends don't vote they are not interested.. black community needs to vote in the elections..

  • Dale Wright says:

    Damm this where my family is from

  • clifford herrington says:

    Yeah! Well, just look at black predominant Cities now! Detroit, Chicago, Baltimore, . Phew! Your MKist LIBTARDISM ignores Natural Law!

  • Cc Cc says:

    Stop reflecting, Vox! The democrats did this. It was the south democrats the racist. Not the republicans.

  • sognodiangeli says:

    “ will never AGAIN be ruled by men of African origin” …..

  • Djuan Blue says:

    Research the Colfax, La massacre!! It happened on a smaller scale in local politics.

  • wanda king says:

    This is still happening😗.

  • Patty Westbrook says:

    Grow up.everyone is racist.its been like thos since all tribes on earth have been going at.

  • Mike C says:

    White people seem to reverting back to this same kind of behavior.

  • Viktor Kinkela says:

    Remeber who the real racist are, were and Will always be.

  • jds hempfarm says:

    The Demorats are still at it today, nothing has changed, not even Literacy. If the majority rules why is lynching outlawed?

  • Viktor Kinkela says:

    This is so bad… . a story about how demonrats lie and hide and try to rewrite history told by demonrats trying to hide the truth and still lying. This o
    Is so bad. People wake UP.

  • Oplitis Λ says:

    Racist Democrats. Some things never change.

  • justice Change says:

    Im happy ik not white from Iran Perzië whe never attack blacks or native Indiana whe rule 5000 years

  • Lee Robinson says:

    Someone show this to the blacks because the still under the impression we all hate them lol

  • Ben 2 Ben says:

    They're wearing Red Hats today…

  • Ben 2 Ben says:

    Wow! The Hawaiian Monarchy was overthrown in 1893! This must've been the in thing to do in those days…SMH

  • Linda Lauer says:

    If this is true back then, it seems that it has switched to the Republican party being the racist ones moreso because I had noticed a couple of times when Trump was facing conflict he had flustered up problems in North Carolina amongst the races !
    I would have to see this literature in person to believe it !!

  • SBF says:

    Yeah. The Democrats were just as racist and evil as they are now.

  • TheSoulbrother#1 says:

    The more I learn about U.S. history, the more I understand how things affected African Americans in a negative way.

  • John Jones says:

    Rich white me run global corporations Murdoch runs the media we need a revolution NOW

  • John Jones says:

    America the foulest of foul

  • mjgarrett9885ify says:

    I thought this was about the illegal overthrow and occupation of hawaii . Which if justice and laws were real . The racketeering fraud in hawaii would change the wealth on this planet completely . How can a bankrupt government annex a nation with wealth legally ? It can't . How can a corporation annex a nation ? It can't ! Yet this is what happened in hawaii . Proof is in the congressional records know as the act of 1871 . How can a bankrupt nation force hawaii which had wealth and no debt to change it's currency to their own ? This was totally illegal to do ? Then force hawaii to help pay for another nations debt ? This is called racketeering and the federal reserve bank has been involved with this criminal activity. Simply put , hawaii should own every bank or financial institution in the world because of this fact . The law that says this is the heir to the body law . If fraud is committed , everyone who has been involved with the scam is held responsible for returning this wealth stolen plus any profits made with the funds .

  • Gold says:

    Wilmington is one of many places that did this ….

    And people wonder why blacks look at unity in the states very differently

  • Renee Harris says:

    It is absolutely impossible to peacefully coexist with "white" people. Segregate now

  • Casey Skipper says:

    Interesting that the Democrats still pretty much dominate the media and fear monger today but instead of scaring whites they scare blacks. There has been no legitimate claims of voter suppression for decades. Democrats use to offer alchohol in black communities in order to secure their votes and bus them to the poles. Now instead of alcohol being offered it is pandering to victimization and self pity and offering to take care of individuals and eliminating self worth.

  • Joe Magnets says:

    Nothing CHANGED, the Main Stream Media, OWNED BY JEWS, still causing death, destruction, and DIVISION between the USA Citizens, that instead of bringing US Together, keep us apart along RACIAL< ECONOMIC groups, keeping the JEWS, that always 'vote' as a BLOCK, IN POWER.
    Joe Magnets

  • Leo the Dragon says:

    The "switch" never happened. Democrats stayed as they are to this day. They just changed their strategy to get power. If you can't use black people to get white votes then convince black people to vote for you.

  • Hey Stopthat says:

    Hmmmm sounds like what's going on today…And this is reminiscent of the Hawaiian overthrow, and Black wall street. And now I see why a lot of my elders didn't get involved in voting and government. And why it's hard for us to organize as a people. On a subconscious level there is a trauma that is preventing us out of fear, anger, disappointment, and powerlessness. We have to repair ourselves, and reparations from north Carolina are in order.

  • brandon james says:

    We the Israelites that’s why

  • brandon james says:

    Whites have perpetual hatred towards us Israelites like the Bible says

  • gurney85 says:

    "God bless America!" — I've alway seen that phrase more of a demand than a petition..

  • brandon james says:

    Ecclesiasticus 12:10 Never trust thine enemy: for like as iron rusteth, so is his wickedness.
    Ecclesiasticus 12:11 Though he humble himself, and go crouching, yet take good heed and beware of him, and thou shalt be unto him as if thou hadst wiped a lookingglass, and thou shalt know that his rust hath not been altogether wiped away.

  • Officer Orange cheetolini says:

    A bunch of wicked devils in suits & ties full of lies

  • Officer Orange cheetolini says:

    Scrolling through the comments and I notice the racist white trolls don’t have nothing to say but is quick to post comments telling black people to get over it or stop playing the race card.

  • InYaSoul says:

    I wish we have Voter ID Law in California.

  • Joe Nderitu says:

    DEMOCRATS ; They were democrats!

  • Glassboulders says:

    3:46 – 3:57

    Eerily reminiscent of contemporary politics.

  • BOUGHT BOT says:

    White dudes……smh

  • The Travel Guy says:

    4300 racists are afraid of history. It’s amazing, most of them call themselves Christians—and they can’t seem to stop talking about the crucifixion of Jesus, and yet no one tells them to stop bringing up the past in regards to this. They can’t stand to hear the truth! Too bad.

  • The Travel Guy says:

    Sounds like what happened in California, Oklahoma, Florida… this was COMMON. White racists today say, “why won’t African Americans take care of themselves…”, whilst at the same time ignoring the fact that every single time the black community in America does something huge for itself, poor, racist, uneducated whites led by rich, racist whites destroyed it. The irony.

  • Gilmore Underwood says:

    In HISTORY they say if You do not LEARN the LESSONS of the PAST the DESTINY to become the PRESENT and even the FUTURE. They are a GREAT THINGS That happen it NATION and SOCIETY which not PRETTY to those WHOM know them . Some are DOWN RIGHT VOICUS and CREUAL in there NATURE, most wonder WHY do HISTORIANS and others LOOK BACK at them now YOU SEE WHY. So many things are REPERTISUS in LIFE , HAPPENING not ONCE the in LIFE but POSSIBLY MULTIPLE TMES if not ADDRESSED and CORRECTED. They are not always PRETTY LESSONS in LIFE as they say , but the HARD and Sometimes BITTER LESSONS of YESTERDAY can SAVE TODAY and TOMORROW but only if take HEED to them . To not PAY ATTENTION to YESTERDAY when it can SAVE TODAY and TOMMOROW WE are FOOLISH as HUMAN BEINGS not HISTORY itself .

  • Terri Mcwilliams says:

    I think in Oklahoma they destroyed their city and killed many by bombing the town. All because the Democrats couldn't stand to see black people successful. And yet today the black race or any minority vote Democrats. Stop! You are just giving your vote to a party that is always using your race to pander votes.

  • satyagraha a says:

    Basically this is the Republican Party and Fox News ….but now the Russians are involved in the game. That's why you have a psychopath like the orange monster in power…..pure evil.

  • Mark Perrault says:

    I noticed that you like to stir the pot when it is unnecessary

  • Mark Perrault says:

    The media today is the enemy period

  • Gareth Thomas says:

    Extremely interesting Ms.Chakraborty….how about addressing your own country's hatred of white people ?

  • grabitz says:

    Democrats. Go figure.

  • Ken Wells says:

    The Democrats have been White Supremacists for decades before they lost the Civil War. They've been trying to erase their sins from history ever since. I have never heard a Democrat admit that the Democrats we're wrong to fight for slavery.

    The Democrats want to blame racism on the warm sun and southern culture and 'there's plenty of blame to go around'. This is fiction.

    There were two side to the Civil War.
    1) People that wanted to abolish slavery from the USA; Abraham Lincoln and The Republicans.

    2) The Democrats who wanted blacks to be slaves forever.

    Lincoln worked the find common ground with the Democrats, but there is no common ground. White Republicans killed hundreds of thousands of white Democrats to free the slaves.

    Why do we allow the Democrats to hide their history and statues!?

    Germany still keeps some death camps left to stand so that everyone knows the Reality. The national socialist party of WW2 Germany killed millions of defenseless people … because they could.

  • Bernice Booker says:

    Trumps America America
    This is how much they hate us

  • Jahvon Thompson says:


  • Siad Brown says:

    Whites for you

  • Isabelle Elliot says:

    Wow. Some things never change. How sad

  • Anthony Johnson says:

    👿 impeach Trump 👿

  • Kerry Williams says:

    Total fear of the truth and how nature would take its course.

  • Christopher Harper Digicash says:


  • Christopher Harper Digicash says:

    I am NOT a Democrat or a Republican, but today's Republicans will never let you forget what happened about 150 years ago! Oh, but whatever you do, don't bring up SLAVERY! That happened a long time ago!

  • Fagus Grandifolia says:

    Weird, you guys accidentally told a story from the past.

  • KAS says:

    White supremacists are running the white house NOW!

  • L Way says:

    There is a reason why millions want to come here from all over the world every year to live and it aint becuase the country is racist. Its because you can be more successful here. If you cant then you have followed the liberal plantation just what they have created and want so they exploit your vote and mind.


    What slavery intended for blacks happened to whites. They tried victoriously to destroy ours souls but they could only destroy our FLESH.

  • DREW MAL says:


  • Kay says:

    Serious, genuine question: Why do we let these sociopaths live? They're literally a cancer to society and are bringing the rest of us down. Conservatives need to be purged, completely and utterly.

  • tony torres says:

    Yhese oligarch in hong kong want pwer not freedom

  • AK Lawrence says:

    Amazing informative video

  • Douglas Pfeil says:

    Democrats haven't changed there game at all.

  • sexobscura says:

    centipede v crocodile

  • Moss Linden says:

    Yet another reason among the million others that Black Americans deserve reparations

  • rezavoirdawg says:

    A media agency pushing racism to propel white supremacists to office? Sounds vaguely familiar.

  • smith lovy says:

    They also did this exact same thing in New Orleans, "Battle" of Liberty Place, 1874. They even erected a statue for that massacre that prasied the white supremacist that stood until 2017. Thats not a mistype. Reparations aren't just for slavery. It is for the incessant cutting of black bootstraps ever since then and giving them to white people. Reparations are due.

  • rob p says:

    may YAH bless black people and raise them in all things and have very much gains.

  • John Steward says:

    Tulsa, Oklahoma, also had a race riot a few years later.

  • Bobby Brown says:

    Nothing has changed it does show how across the country the economics of Blacks was at the hand of whites

  • Lawrence Holst says:

    Sorry to say that European people are excepted amongst each other for these sentiments and I say to THE OTHER
    Muslims people of color all over the world, NEVER fEXCEPT this!❗️ love your religion and each other and if you need a change go and seek nearness to Your God If you need a doctor Send your best mannered to get services . Pay in cash and go back to your country .of origin. When services completed, everything worked out and you feel better and your healthy thank Allah & thank them❗️ 1000% you live better with muslims then non MUSLIMS because you have money you can have a good life when you remember God, but If you forsake God, and you have money your life will be miserable ⚠️

  • Uniqueness Entertainment says:

    So the printing press they set it on fire. Black Wall Street they set that on fire. Burning crosses in front yards they set that on fire. And that's why the most high God said he's going to destroy Babylon with fire and brimstone. And United States is the ancient Babylon. Each will reap what they sow from bloodline down to their own doings. May God spare the Innocents who will be caught in the Wrath of the Judgment upon the wicked ones.

  • Sunz Rising says:

    REPARATIONS is the only equalizer.

  • Glen Long says:

    White supremacy is making a comeback because White Christian males are under attack in the country that they built.

  • Glen Long says:

    Why are voter ID laws racist? Are blacks too poor to pay for an ID or travel to the DMV? Are they too illiterate to navigate the internet…or pass a driver's test…or even fill out a form for a basic ID card? The ones who call voter ID racist…are the racists.

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