Overview of theories of development | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy

Overview of theories of development | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy


Voiceover: Okay so you’re probably
looking at this screen and wondering who in the world are these four men that I
have put on on the screen. Well these four men we’re gonna look at. At are very important in understanding
theories of development. So that’s what we’re gonna talk about in
this, in this video are the different theories
of development. And it would be nice if I could spell it
properly. (laughs) There we go. Okay. So, up here, we have Freud. Over here, we have Erikson. Over here is Vygotsky. And last, we have Kohlberg. So, development. Let’s start off by defining what it is. Development is the series of age related
changes that happen over the course of a life
span. So people pass through different stages in
a specific order and each stage builds on top of
another. And we develop capacities through those
stages. Built upon the previous stage. So these four men had four different
theories of how we develop. And the first we’re going to take a look
at is Freud, Sigmund Freud. So, Freud proposed the psychosexual theory
of development. So let’s write that down here. So, he was. He was important in starting off the
psychosexual theory that describes how personality develops
during childhood. That’s also another key term. He looked at how we developed through
childhood, and he actually believed that early childhood
was the most important. Most important age or period in which most
of our personalitie’s developed. He said that most of our personality is
established by the age of five. And he says that early experiences play a
large role in personality development and that continues
to influence behavior later in life. And his theory was built upon five stages,
which we’ll get into a little bit later. But, if these five stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy
personality. And certain issues, if they’re not
resolved at a certain stage and we move ahead to the next stage,
then. Something called fixation can happen. So that’s another key term that we’ll take
a look at a little later. So that’s the psychosexual theory of
Freud. Now the second key player. Or key person that we’re gonna look at was
Kohlberg. Sorry not Kohlberg, Erikson. And Erikson talked about the psychosocial
development theory. So in this theory, he proposed, Eric
Erikson proposed. That personality development occurs
through one’s entire lifespan. So, you can already see how it’s a little
different from Freud who said personality, most of
it’s established in childhood. So he believed that each stage of development again, was focused on
overcoming a conflict. And success or failure in dealing with
these conflicts at each stage can impact overall
functioning of a person. And he proposed a theory that had eight
stages, which we’ll take a look at a little later. So in each stage, people faced new
challenges and the stages outcome depends on how people
handle these challenges. The next person was Lev Vykotsky, who was
a Russian theorist. And what Lev said and developed was the sociocultural, cognitive
development theory. So, socio-cultural and how it’s heavily
influenced by cognitive development. And, what Vygotsky believed was that
children learn actively and through hands on
experiences. So it’s a very, it’s an active process
through which through which we develop. And his sociocultural theory suggests that
parents, caregivers, peers cultural beliefs, attitudes, and language
are all responsible for the development of this higher order
function of learning. And he said that a child internalizes the information they get from the interaction
with others. So he was all about, how us as individuals
are influenced by those around us and the culture around
us. And then that is, that interaction is what
is able to guide children in their own performance
and in their own development. And his theory stresses this importance of social interaction in the development of
cognition. So, fun fact, unfortunately, Vygotzky died
at the age of 38. So many of the parts of this theory are
actually incomplete. And the last theorist we’re gonna take a
look at was Lawrence Kohlberg. And he developed the moral development
theory. So he looked at how we develop our morals
throughout life. He focused on moral reasoning or why
people think about think about the difference between
right and wrong. So right versus wrong. He believed that moral reasoning depends. Depends on the level of cognitive
development and proposed that people pass through three levels of
moral development. So his was three stages, but each of these three stages was further divided
into two stages. So altogether, there were six levels. And he came up with this theory after he did a lot of research with groups of
children. So he would present these children with a
bunch of moral dilemma situations and then after, he would interview the kids to find out their reasoning behind their
judgements in each of the scenarios so he could ask them a
bunch of questions and try to analyze how they came to certain conclusions and
reasoning behind how they solved each of these
scenarios. So, overall remember that Freud and
Erikson looked at personality. So they were focused on how personality
develops. Versus Vygotsky and Kohlberg were
interested in how our cognition develops. So their theories were heavily, heavily
influenced by cognitive theories. So this is a broad overview of the
different stages of development from four main and
different perspectives. There are a lot of other and much many
more perspectives, but we’re going to focus on these four and
so the main takeaway from this is to keep in mind
the similarities and differences, as well as the focus of
each of the theories. And in the next set of videos, I’ll go into more depth into each one of these
theories.

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