Changing the game in the Community with Dr. Marilyn Fraser | Black America

Changing the game in the Community with Dr. Marilyn Fraser | Black America


♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪>>HELLO, AND THANK YOU FOR JOINING US TODAY. I’M CAROL JENKINS AND THE PROGRAM IS “BLACK AMERICA.” WE ARE TALKING ABOUT HEALTH DISPARITIES IN THE BLACK COMMUNITY. DR. MARILYN FRASER IS CEO OF THE ARTHUR ASHE INSTITUTE FOR URBAN HEALTH, NAMED OF COURSE FOR THE GREAT TENNIS LEGEND AND HUMANITARIAN, ARTHUR ASHE. THANK YOU DR. FRASER FOR BEING HERE. THIS IS SO MEANINGFUL FOR ME BECAUSE I KNEW ARTHUR ASHE AND ADMIRED HIM SO TREMENDOUSLY. HE REALLY WAS A LEGEND AND WAS A LEGENDARY HUMAN BEING. THE WORK YOU ARE DOING AND HIS NAME IN OUR COMMUNITIES IS SO IMPORTANT. I WANT YOU TO START BY PLACING YOURSELF IN BLACK AMERICA — HOW DID YOU GET TO THIS WORK?>>SO I’M ORIGINALLY AN IMMIGRANT. I CAME FROM GUYANA AS A CHILD. MY PARENTS RELOCATED TO THE UNITED STATES TO BROOKLYN AND NOW WE LIVE IN QUEENS. I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN INTERESTED IN HEALTH DISPARITIES AND HEALTH INEQUITIES. I HAVE BEEN REALLY INTERESTED IN PREVENTION BECAUSE THERE ARE A LOT OF THINGS THAT CAN BE PREVENTED BY DIET AND EXERCISE. SO AFTER MEDICAL SCHOOL, I HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO START WORKING AT THE ARTHUR ASHE INSTITUTE. AND I LEARNED ABOUT GOING OUT INTO THE COMMUNITY AND DOING HEALTH PROMOTION. AND I FELL IN LOVE WITH IT. THAT IS WHERE I REMAIN. I STARTED DOING EDUCATION IN BEAUTY SALONS AND BARBERSHOPS AND IN FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS. AND I REALIZED PEOPLE HAD A LOT OF QUESTIONS THEY WERE AFRAID TO ASK, AND IT PROVIDED AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THEM TO TALK ABOUT HEALTH ISSUES AND HAVE A CONVERSATION THEY MAY NOT HAVE HAD WITH THEIR PHYSICIANS.>>THE INSTITUTE WAS ACTUALLY CREATED BY ARTHUR ASHE BEFORE HE DIED, AND FOR MANY WHO DID NOT KNOW THAT, YOU SAID YOU SAW ARTHUR ASHE WHEN YOU WERE A CHILD. TELL US YOUR THOUGHTS ABOUT HIM.>>I ALWAYS THOUGHT HE HAD SO MUCH GRACE, THE WAY HE DEALT WITH SITUATIONS, EVEN THINKING ABOUT HOW HE DEALT WITH HIV. AND HE WAS SO GRACIOUS AND ALWAYS SEEMED LIKE SOMEONE WHO WAS WONDERFUL, AND YOU WANTED TO KNOW HIM AS A FRIEND. AND HE FOUGHT FOR A LOT OF THINGS. HE WAS AN ACTIVIST, BUT THE WAY HE DID IT WAS THAT KIND OF GRACE AND HONOR AND DIGNITY.>>SO, HE WAS A SPECTACULAR POOR KID WHO LEARNED TO PLAY ON THE PUBLIC COURTS WHO BECOME ONE OF THE BEST TENNIS PLAYERS IN THE WORLD, BUT WHO HAD TO RETIRE BECAUSE OF HIS HEART CONDITION FAIRLY EARLY. AND WHEN HE WAS BEING TREATED LATER ON FOR OTHER AILMENTS THROUGH A TRANSFUSION, CONTRACTED HIV/ AIDS AND DIED FROM THAT. AND THAT WAS DURING THE HEIGHT OF THE FEAR BEFORE WE KNEW ANYTHING ABOUT IT.>>EXACTLY. A LOT OF PEOPLE DO NOT REMEMBER THAT ARTHUR HAD CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE OR HEART DISEASE AND HE HAD A HEART ATTACK AT A YOUNG AGE AND HE HAD BYPASS SURGERY. AND WHEN HE HAD A SECOND BYPASS, THAT IS HOW HE CONTRACTED THE VIRUS. AND IT WAS A TIME WHEN PEOPLE WERE FEARFUL OF HIV, AND DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE ILLNESS, AND IT WAS SEEN AS A WHITE, GAY MAN’S DISEASE. AND HERE IS ARTHUR COMING OUT AND SAYING, I AM HIV-POSITIVE. AND SOON AFTER, HE CAME OUT AFTER MAGIC JOHNSON, YES.>>RIGHT, RIGHT. HE OFTEN TALKED ABOUT THE FACT THAT HIS DOCTORS LOST SO MANY CLIENTS WHEN THEY FOUND OUT THEY TREATED HIM. SO FEARFUL WERE PEOPLE. AND THE IDEA THAT YOU COULD GET IT FROM A TRANSFUSION WAS BEFORE THE TESTING.>>EXACTLY. OFTEN TIMES, AFTER SO MANY YEARS OF US KNOWING ABOUT HIV AND HOW IT IS CONTRACTED, SOMETIMES IN OUR COMMUNITY, PEOPLE STILL THINK YOU CAN GET IT FROM SHARING A GLASS OR SHARING A UTENSIL FROM SOMEONE. SO THE WORK WE DO IN TERMS OF EDUCATING THE COMMUNITY IS SO POIGNANT AND SO IMPORTANT THAT PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE RISK FACTORS, AND HOW IT CAN BE CONTRACTED, BUT ALSO WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE SOME OF THOSE RISK FACTORS.>>ONE OF THE AMAZING THINGS THE INSTITUTE DOES, IS YOU ARE IN THE BARBERSHOPS IN THE HAIR SALONS WHERE PEOPLE ARE. TALK TO US ABOUT THAT WORK.>>INITIALLY, WE USED TO GO INTO BARBERSHOPS AND BEAUTY SALONS AND TALK TO PEOPLE ABOUT HEALTH, AND PROVIDE THEM WITH HEALTH INFORMATION, AND WHEN WE LEFT, THE BARBERS AND STYLISTS MENTIONED THAT IS WHEN THE CONVERSATIONS THAT INTERESTING, AND PEOPLE TALKED MORE, AND THEY WANTED TO BE ABLE TO BE TRAINED SO THEY CAN INTERJECT AND GUIDE CONVERSATIONS. SO, JUST GOING IN TO DOING CONVERSATION, WE DEVELOPED CURRICULUM TO TRAIN BARBERS AND STYLISTS FOR THEM TO BE THE MESSENGERS FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS FOR WHATEVER AILMENT IT WAS. WE WOULD PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND SUPPORT MATERIALS FOR THEM TO HAVE THOSE CONVERSATIONS.>>THAT IS REALLY INCREDIBLE. I THINK MOST PEOPLE STILL HAVE THE OLD MODEL IN MIND, WHERE YOU WOULD WALK-IN AS A BRILLIANT, YOUNG DOCTOR, AND GIVE ADVICE, AND LEAVE. AND WHAT IS BEING SAID IN THE COMMUNITIES IS THAT NO, THE BARBERS AND THE HAIRSTYLISTS ARE THE ONES WHO REALLY NEED THE INFORMATION TO PASS ON. AND HOW DO YOU MEASURE THE RESULTS OF ALL OF THAT, OF WHAT IS HAPPENING IN THE COMMUNITY?>>WE DO A LOT OF SURVEYS AND COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH THAT WE SURVEY BEFORE AND AFTER THE MESSAGE IS GIVEN. THREE MONTHS AFTER, TO SEE IF THERE IS ANY CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE OR BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE COMMUNITY WITH THE CLIENTS OF THE BARBERS AND STYLISTS. AND WHEN WE HAVE A TRAINING WITH THE STYLISTS AND THE BARBERS, WE HAVE A PRE-SURVEY BEFORE THE TRAINING, AND A POST ASSESSMENT AFTER THE TRAINING, NOT ONLY TO SEE IF THEY ACQUIRED MORE KNOWLEDGE, BUT ALSO TO SEE WHETHER THEY FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE DOING THAT, DELIVERING THE MESSAGE TO THEIR CUSTOMERS, AND TALKING TO THEIR CUSTOMERS ABOUT WHATEVER AILMENT IT IS WE ARE TRAINING THEM ON.>>AND WHAT AILMENTS ARGUE TRAINING? I KNOW IT IS HIV AND AIDS. BUT I WAS INTERESTED TO KNOW THAT SLEEP APNEA IS A HUGE AREA YOU ARE WORKING AND, MOST OF US NEVER THINK OF THAT AS DANGEROUS.>>YEAH, AND PEOPLE DO NOT KNOW ABOUT SLEEP APNEA. SOMETIMES THE — SOMETIMES PEOPLE WILL SAY MY PARTNER IS SNORING, BUT THEY DO NOT KNOW ABOUT SLEEP APNEA AND THAT THOSE MAY BE SIGNS OF SLEEP APNEA. AND SOME MAY BE OVERWEIGHT AND THAT MAY ADD TO THAT, AND THERE IS A CARDIOVASCULAR COMPONENT TO SLEEP APNEA. AND SO, WHEN WE ARE LOOKING AT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, WE NEED TO LOOK AT ALL OF THOSE DIFFERENT FACTORS. SLEEP APNEA MAY HAVE AN EFFECT ON THEIR HEART OR LUNG SYSTEM.>>YOU WERE SAYING THAT THAT COULD BE SUDDEN-DEATH.>>PEOPLE’S HAVE DIED — PEOPLE HAVE DIED BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT ABLE TO BREATHE. AND APNEA IS SHORTNESS OF BREATH OR THE BREATH IS CUT OFF. AND SO, WHILE YOU ARE SLEEPING, YOU ARE GASPING FOR YOUR BREATH IS SUDDENLY CUT OFF AND IF YOUR OXYGEN ISN’T GOING THERE YOU CAN ACTUALLY DIE.>>I KNOW THAT DIABETES IS SOMETHING THAT IS RAMPANT IN OUR COMMUNITIES.>>UNFORTUNATELY, A LOT OF AILMENTS ARE RAMPANT IN OUR COMMUNITY, AND AS BLACKS, WE FACE A BURDEN, AND UNEQUAL BURDEN OR IT COMES TO AILMENTS LIKE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, HEART DISEASE, DIABETES IS RAMPANT IN OUR COMMUNITY. WE HAVE A LOT OF CANCERS IN TERMS OF NOT NECESSARILY HAVING IT MORE FREQUENTLY THAN OUR WHITE COUNTERPARTS, BUT IT IS USUALLY AT A LATER STAGE. SO, THE DEATH RATE FOR CANCER IS HIGHER IN OUR COMMUNITY. DIABETES IS AN AILMENT THAT AFFECTS ALL OF OUR BODY’S SYSTEM WHEN WE THINK ABOUT ALL OF THE ASPECTS THAT DIABETES AFFECTS. BUT A LOT OF THESE DISEASES CAN BE MANAGED WITH DIET AND EXERCISE OFTEN TIMES, AND SO, HOW DID WE CHANGE DIET, HOW DO WE ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO EXERCISE MORE? THOSE ARE THINGS WE ARE TRYING TO ENHANCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES.>>AND YOU ARE IN LIKE 100 –WHAT IS YOUR GOAL? 100 BARBERSHOPS AND HAIR SALONS? HOW MANY WOULD YOU NEED TO GO TO? HOW MANY ARE THERE?>>THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF BEAUTY SALONS AND BARBERSHOPS. THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF THOSE. DEPENDING ON THE WORK WE HAVE DONE, SO WHEN WE DID OUR HIV WORK, CALLED BARBERSHOP TALK WITH BROTHERS, WHERE WE TRAINED BARBERS TO TALK TO CUSTOMERS ABOUT HIV AND AIDS AND ABOUT HOW TO REDUCE THEIR RISK FOR HIV, AND WE LOOK AT HETEROSEXUAL AFRICAN-AMERICAN MALES. IN THAT GROUP, WE WERE IN ABOUT 80 PLUS BARBERSHOPS JUST FOR THAT WORK. WE DID WORK AROUND CANCER AND BREAST CANCER WHERE WE TRAINED STYLISTS TO TALK TO THEIR CUSTOMERS ABOUT BREAST CANCER DOING SELF EXAMINATIONS AND THOSE KINDS OF THINGS. AND WE ARE AND ABOUT MAYBE 70 BEAUTY SALONS WITH THAT WORK. SO, THERE IS A LOT OF THEM AND A LOT MORE TO GO. WE TRY TO MAINTAIN OUR RELATIONSHIPS WITH BEAUTY SALONS AND BARBERSHOPS. AS YOU MENTIONED, THERE ARE A LOT OF THEM, AND IN BROOKLYN, I WOULD LIKE TO EXPAND TO OTHER BOROUGHS AS WELL.>>AND YOU ALSO SAID FAITH-RELATED AND THE CHURCHES.>>WE ARE IN CHURCHES TO SOME EXTENT. WE HAD A PROGRAM A FEW YEARS AGO WITH A PROGRAM TALKING ABOUT HIV IN THE CHURCH. IT IS COMPLICATED. THERE IS CURRICULUM IN THE CHURCH ON HOW YOU BRING UP THE TOPIC OF HIV TRANSMISSION, SO THEY UTILIZED CURRICULUM TO TALK ABOUT THAT.>>RIGHT, RIGHT.>>SINCE THEN WE’VE BEEN IN THE CHURCHES TALKING ABOUT OTHER THINGS TOO.>>I SAW A GREAT PHOTOGRAPH OF SOME YOUNG PEOPLE IN LAB COATS.>>WHEN ARTHUR FOUNDED THE INSTITUTE, ONE OF THE THINGS HE REALLY WANTED US TO DO, AND HE WAS PASSIONATE ABOUT, WAS CHANGING THE DYNAMICS IN TERMS OF WHAT THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS LOOKED LIKE, AND MAKING SURE WE COULD IMPROVE, AND WE COULD ALSO INCREASE THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE OF COLOR IN THE HEALTH PROFESSION. SO HEALTH SCIENCE ACADEMY IS A THREE-YEAR, AFTERSCHOOL SCIENCE ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE INTERESTED IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS. THEY COME TO US IN THE 10TH GRADE AFTER SCHOOL. THEY COME 10TH GRADE THROUGH THE 12TH GRADE. THEY LEARN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, THEY LEARN ABOUT HEALTH DISPARITIES, HEALTH INEQUITIES, THEY DO RESEARCH, SO THEY HAVE A GOOD TIME DOING IT. AND WE KNOW THEY GO ON TO COLLEGE. MANY OF THEM GO ON TO MAJOR IN THE HEALTH PROFESSION. AND WE HOPE THEY BECOME CULTURALLY-COMPETENT AND LITERATE IN TERMS OF HEALTH AND THE HEALTH DISPARITIES ASPECT, SO THEY CAN COME BACK TO THE COMMUNITIES AND SERVE.>>HOW FAR LONG HAVE SOME OF THE STUDENTS OR GRADUATES GONE ON? WHERE ARE THEY?>>WE HAVE SOME THAT ARE PHYSICIANS. WE HAVE SOME NURSES AND WE HAVE SOME AT SUNY DOWNSTATE AND DID THEIR RESIDENCY THERE. AND THEY LEARN ABOUT ALL THE DIFFERENT HEALTH PROFESSIONS. WHEN STUDENTS COME AND THINK OF NURSING AND MEDICINE AS THE TWO HEALTH PROFESSIONS, AND THAT IS IT. [LAUGHTER]>>THEY LEARN ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH. THERE IS OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND ALL OF ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS AND BEING AT DOWNSTATE IS WONDERFUL BECAUSE THEY GET EXPOSED TO ALL OF THESE COLLEGES. AND THEY GET TO MODEL SOME OF THE BEHAVIOR. WE HAVE THE WHITE COAT CEREMONY THAT WE’VE INSTITUTED. WE WANT TO GO EARLIER TO MIDDLE SCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY HOPEFULLY AND START TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION.>>I AM INTERESTED TO KNOW WHAT THEY TOLD YOU ABOUT ARTHUR WHEN YOU STARTED WORKING THERE? YOU KNOW HE WANTED TO FIX THIS RELATIONSHIP TO WHO WAS DELIVERING THE SERVICES AND THE COMMUNITY, AND THERE HAD TO BE AN EASY WAY OF GETTING THAT DONE. WHAT ELSE DID THEY TELL YOU ABOUT ARTHUR AND WHAT HE HOPED TO HAVE DONE?>>SO, HE WANTED TO DEVELOP INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS IN THE COMMUNITY AND MEETING PEOPLE’S WHERE THEY WERE, AND INFORM POLICY, AND BE COGNIZANT OF THE POLICIES THAT WERE AROUND IN TERMS OF HEALTH POLICIES, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES. WANTED US TO TRAIN THE NEXT GENERATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS AND WANTED US TO PARTNER. PARTNERSHIP WAS IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF PARTING WITH ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS, BEING ABLE TO PUBLISH OUR RESEARCH, AND PUBLISH THE WORK THAT COMES FROM THE INSTITUTE, AND ALSO BEING COGNIZANT OF THE COMMUNITIES FROM WHICH SOME OF OUR PEOPLE MAY COME FROM, AND HAVING PARTNERSHIPS WITH THOSE COUNTRIES AS WELL. WHERE WE ARE IS A LARGE AFRO CARIBBEAN POPULATION. AND EVEN UNDERSTANDING SOME OF THESE DISEASE ISSUES AND HEALTH ISSUES WITHIN THOSE COUNTRIES THEMSELVES.>>SO, YOU GOT ALL OF THAT — I WAS THINKING THERE ARE SO MANY PEOPLE WHO WOULD NOT REMEMBER OR DID NOT EVER KNOW WHO ARTHUR ASHE WAS, EXCEPT THAT THEY WILL HEAR HIS NAME EVERY YEAR BECAUSE OF THE STADIUM IS NAMED FOR HIM. WHAT IS THE CONNECTION WITH ATHLETES? BECAUSE HE WAS SUCH THE ATHLETE, A GRACEFUL ONE. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP TO WHAT GOES ON WITH THE WORK THAT YOU ARE DOING?>>ONE OF THE THINGS WE ARE TRYING TO DO MORE NOW, IS FORGE MORE OF A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE JUNIOR TENNIS LEAGUE THAT ARTHUR FOUNDED. THE ATHLETES, WHENEVER WE HONOR ATHLETES AT OUR SPORTS BALL, THEY ARE USUALLY FASCINATED AND FEEL HONORED TO BE A PART OF THIS BECAUSE THEY REALLY RESPECTED ARTHUR A WHOLE LOT. ATHLETES ARE ALWAYS AWESTRUCK TO BE IN THE PRESENCE WHEN THEY THINK ABOUT ARTHUR ASHE AND WHO HE WAS. BECAUSE HE WAS AN EMINENT ATHLETE.>>BUT ALSO A WRITER, AND ALSO A HUMANITARIAN.>>EXACTLY.>>TRAVELED TO SOUTH AFRICA. I MEAN, SO MANY WONDERFUL THINGS HE DID. I AM LOOKING AT HIS MEMOIR “DAYS OF GRACE.” EVERYONE SHOULD READ THIS, EVERYONE WHO IS LIVING AND WILL ULTIMATELY DIE, SHOULD READ HIS MEMOIR BECAUSE HE HAD TO AT A VERY EARLY AGE CONSIDER LEAVING. HE WAS MARRIED TO A YOUNG FRIEND OF OURS WHO WAS WORKING WITH US AT NBC AND SHE WAS SO EXCITED THE DAY SHE WAS GOING TO MEET ARTHUR ASHE. SHE SAID I AM GOING TO MEET HIM AND MARRY HIM, AND SHE DID. AND THEY HAD A WONDERFUL DAUGHTER. SO IN HIS MEMOIR, HE TALKS ABOUT ALL OF THOSE THINGS. THE KINDS OF HARDSHIPS HE HAD IN HIS LIFE IN ADDITION TO THE TREMENDOUS SUCCESS, THE WORK THAT HE WAS ABLE TO DO IN SOUTH AFRICA. IT IS REALLY A PREMIER FOR LIVING.>>IT IS. IT IS A WONDERFUL BOOK THAT CHRONICLES HIS LIFE, TALKS ABOUT ALL OF THE CHALLENGES, BUT HIS RESILIENCE COMES THROUGH IN THAT, TOO.>>I DO WANT TO READ A LITTLE BIT BECAUSE THIS WAS ARTHUR AT HIS ESSENCE. AND I THINK THIS IS WHAT HE WAS TRYING TO DO IN CREATING THE INSTITUTE. THIS IS SOMETHING HE HAD HANDS ON DECIDING WHAT WOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE INSTITUTE. AND HE SAYS “SOME PEOPLE PROFESS TO SEE A LITTLE PURPOSE FOR THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE. AND THAT IS PRECISELY THE TASK TO WHICH, IN MY FIGHT AGAINST THE RAVAGES OF AIDS, I DEVOTE MYSELF EVERY DAY, THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE. AIDED BY SCIENCE AND MY FIGHT WITH THIS DISEASE, I KNOW THAT WE ARE ALL AS HUMAN BEINGS GOING TO OUR DEATH, AND THAT I MAY BE CALLED BECAUSE OF AIDS TO GO FASTER THAN MOST OTHERS. STILL, I RESOLUTELY DO BATTLE WITH THIS OPPONENT AS I BOLDLY DID BATTLE WITH MY OPPONENTS ON THE TENNIS COURT. TRUE, THIS FIGHT IS DIFFERENT, THE BIGGEST DIFFERENCE IS THAT I NOW FIGHT NOT SO MUCH TO WIN, AS NOT TO LOSE. THIS ENEMY IS DIFFERENT TOO. DARK AND MYSTERIOUS. SPRINGING ON CIVILIZATION JUST WHEN CIVILIZATION WAS SURE THAT IT ALMOST RID ITSELF OF MYSTERIOUS BEASTS FOREVER.” AND I THINK HE LEFT HIS MARK IN SPORTS, BUT HE ALSO LEFT HIS MARK ON LIFE AND SCIENCE, AND THAT IS WHAT YOU ARE PURSUING BECAUSE WE HAVE GOTTEN TO THE POINT WHERE WE THOUGHT THERE WOULD NOT BE ANYTHING TREMENDOUSLY CATASTROPHIC.>>EXACTLY. NO MORE BLACK PLAGUE. WE HAVE GOTTEN RID OF POLIO IN THOSE DIFFERENT THINGS, SO YES, AND THEN HERE COMES HIV.>>AND IN OUR COMMUNITY, HAVE YOU SEEN PROGRESS IN TERMS OF, I KNOW HETEROSEXUAL MEN, YOU SAID MANY OF THEM OR BISEXUAL MEN WERE MARRIED WITH FAMILIES. DO YOU ADDRESS THAT IN YOUR WORK AS WELL?>>THE WORK ADDRESSES HIV ACROSS DIFFERENT POPULATIONS. THE REASON WHY WE FOCUS ON HETEROSEXUAL AFRICAN-AMERICAN MALES BECAUSE OFTENTIMES, PEOPLE DON’T THINK OF THE RISK FACTORS THERE. AND THEY STILL THINK OF IT AS A GAY, WHITE MALE DISEASE. AND SO, IT WAS IMPORTANT TO SPEAK ABOUT THAT, AND ALSO BECAUSE HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN. WOMEN ARE AFFECTED, TOO, AND THAT IS ONE POINT. YEAH. IT IS A FAST-GROWING POPULATION, SO MAKING SURE PEOPLE ARE AWARE OF THE RISK FACTORS, AWARE OF THE WAYS IN WHICH IT CAN BE TRANSMITTED AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE THOSE RISKS.>>SO, WHAT FEEDBACK DO YOU GET — ARE WE AS A BLACK COMMUNITY ADDRESSING OUR HEALTH SUFFICIENTLY? I THINK I WOULD SAY THE ANSWER IS NO, BUT WHY IS THAT DO YOU THINK?>>ONE, I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS IS NOT BEING AWARE OF RISK FACTORS. NOT BEING AWARE OF HOW TO FIGHT THOSE RISK FACTORS OR ADDRESS THOSE RISK FACTORS. AND THEN THERE ARE SO MANY OTHER SOCIAL ISSUES, RIGHT? THAT COME IN TO PLAY. WHAT WE CALL SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH. WHEN WE SAY TO SOMEONE, WE NEED YOU TO PICK UP THIS PRESCRIPTION AND BUY THIS MEDICATION, AND THAT PERSON DOES NOT HAVE CHILD CARE OR TRANSPORTATION OR HOUSING IS AN ISSUE, THOSE THINGS TAKE PRECEDENTS OVER ADDRESSING HEALTH. AND SO YOU HAVE ALL THESE SYSTEMATIC THINGS THAT NEED TO BE CHANGED. INSURANCE. BEING INSURED. WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT AND WHAT IT DID FOR PEOPLE BUT A LOT MORE PEOPLE ARE GOING TO THEIR DOCTORS, SO THERE IS THAT THREAT. WE HAVE ISSUES AND OUR POLITICAL CLIMATE AND IMMIGRATION ISSUES, WHERE FOLKS THAT NATURALLY WANT TO GO ARE SCARED TO GO TO THE DOCTOR. YOU HAVE ALL OF THOSE THINGS WITHIN OUR COMMUNITIES.>>THE COST AND THE INSURANCE, I WAS READING SOMEONE ON SOCIAL MEDIA WHO SAID, I HAVE JUST SPENT MY LAST $500 BUYING INSULIN FOR MY DAUGHTER WHO CANNOT AFFORD IT. YOU KNOW, THE PRICES FOR SOME MEDICATIONS HAVE JUST SKYROCKETED.>>YEAH, SO WE NEED MORE TO BE DONE FOR THAT, AND WE NEED TO MAKE SURE THOSE THINGS ARE ADDRESSED, AND THAT PEOPLE ARE ADVOCATING FOR THAT. ONE THING WE TALK ABOUT ARTHUR ASHE BEING AN ADVOCATE AND ACTIVIST AND WE NEED PEOPLE TO STAND UP AND TALK ABOUT THOSE THINGS TO MAKE SURE THAT POLICIES ARE CHANGED. BECAUSE WE CAN EDUCATE PEOPLE BY HEALTH ALL WE WANT TO, WE CAN EDUCATE THEM ABOUT EATING RIGHT AND EXERCISING, BUT IF THERE ARE CERTAIN SYSTEMIC THINGS THAT DO NOT CHANGE, THAT EDUCATION IS LOST.>>WE ALWAYS ASK OUR GUESTS TO FINISH THE STATEMENT, THE STRENGTH, THE POWER OF BLACK AMERICA LIES IN- WHAT IS YOUR THINKING ABOUT THAT?>>IN OUR RESILIENCY AS A PEOPLE. WE HAVE GONE THROUGH SO MUCH AS A PEOPLE, AND I THINK WE ARE VERY RESILIENT. LIES IN RESILIENCY. IT LIES IN EDUCATING OUR YOUTH SO THEY KNOW ABOUT THE PAST, AND THAT THEY CAN KNOW WHICH WAY THEY NEED TO GO IN THE FUTURE. AND ALSO, TO GIVE BACK. EDUCATING PEOPLE ABOUT GIVING BACK BECAUSE WE DID NOT GET HERE ON OUR OWN AND WE NEED TO GIVE BACK TO OTHERS.>>I AM FASCINATED WITH YOUR DEDICATION TO THIS. I MEAN, WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT YOURSELF WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT HOW LONG YOU WILL DO THIS, AND THE PROGRESS YOU ARE MAKING, AND UPHOLDING ARTHUR’S WORK AND HIS NAME AND ALL OF THAT?>>I REALLY ENJOY DOING THE WORK AND I AM REALLY PASSIONATE ABOUT SPEAKING TO OUR COMMUNITY. SO THAT IS SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO BE LIFELONG AND TALKING TO PEOPLE ABOUT HEALTH. BECAUSE I THINK THERE ARE SO MANY THINGS THAT COULD BE MODIFIED, AND SO MANY RISK FACTORS THAT COULD BE ADDRESSED. I AM PASSIONATE ABOUT OUR YOUTH AND KNOWING THAT THEY ARE THE NEXT GENERATION, AND THEY ARE THE ONES WHO WILL BE THE LEADERS. AND LEADERS NOW IN THEIR OWN RIGHT, BUT ALSO FUTURE LEADERS, SO I AM PASSIONATE ABOUT BOTH ASPECTS. I AM PASSIONATE ABOUT THE ACTIVIST’S ROLE AND THE SOCIAL JUSTICE, MAKING SURE PEOPLE FEEL MORE EMPOWERED TO GO OUT AND CHANGE POLICIES, AND MAKING SURE THAT POLICIES ARE CHANGED SO WE CAN HAVE BETTER HEALTH OUTCOMES.>>WELL, I HAVE A FEELING THAT ARTHUR WOULD HAVE BEEN VERY PROUD OF THE WORK YOU ARE DOING, AND PLEASED WITH YOUR COMMITMENT. YOU ARE A WORTHY SUCCESSOR TO HIS DESIRE TO MAKE SURE WHEN HE LEFT HERE, HIS WORK WOULD NOT BE ABANDONED. AND I AM THRILLED YOU’RE CONTINUING TO DO IT. THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>THANK YOU ALL FOR JOINING US. I’M CAROL JENKINS, AND THE PROGRAM IS “BLACK AMERICA.” ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪

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